Udo Erasmus, pioneer of essential fatty acids, EFA's, omega-3, omega fats, Udo's Choice, Udo's Oil, cold-pressed flax-seed oil, trans-fats, Trans Fatty acids
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  Humans Turn ALA (Udo Oil) to EPA/DHA (Fish Oil)
* With a note on Cooking Oils * - by Udo Erasmus
  Abbreviations see Appendix I below    References: see Appendix II below
CLICK HERE for a reference link to the study by Cho, HP, Cho, H. P., M. T. Nakamura, et al. (1999). "Cloning, expression, and nutritional regulation of the mammalian Delta-6 desaturase.

Proponents of fish oils have claimed for decades that the body cannot convert the basic omega-3 essential fatty acid, ALA, into the omega-3 derivatives, EPA and DHA, found in fish oils. Is this true? If so, what is the evidence? When questioned, many fish oil promoters modify themselves and say that too little conversion takes place. When pushed further on the issue, they add "in some people", and pushed even further, they'll reluctantly admit that only "a small percentage of the population may not be able to adequately convert".

The question of omega-3 conversion is important, because EPA is needed to make health-protecting 'eicosanoid' hormones that keep cell metabolism on an even keel, and DHA is required for brain development, brain function, vision, and sperm formation, and has heart-protective and anti-inflammatory functions as well. If the body converts ALA into fish oil omega-3, then fish or its oil is not required in the diet. If the body cannot convert, then we must all look to fatty fish or fish oils (ugh!) for these important omega-3 derivatives.

Untrue Claims

The claim that the body cannot convert ALA to EPA and DHA was not true 20 years ago, and is not true today. This claim does, however, serve to protect the fish oil market. You see, if people knew that the body converts the plant omega-3, ALA, to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives found in fish, they would stop using rancid, contaminated, or partially damaged fish oils and would use omega-3 rich vegetable oils made with health in mind instead.

The truth is that most people do not get enough ALA in their diet.

Our omega-3 intake is only 1/6th of the amount eaten by people 150 years ago, and intake was far from optimal in 1850. Without sufficient starting material, not much conversion can take place. Zero ALA gets you zero conversion to EPA and DHA. Lots of ALA gets you lots of conversion. Even today, 95 to 99% of the population gets too little omega-3 in their diet, making conversion inadequate in the majority of the population. Instead of forcing them to take fish oils, shouldn't we encourage them to increase their intake of ALA?


ALA Re-Introduction to the Diet Changes the Story

That's what began to happen in 1986. Optimum intake of ALA became possible to consumers through the introduction of omega-3 rich oils made with health in mind. In 1983, the author of this article developed methods for making oils with health in mind by protecting them from light, air (oxygen), and heat during processing, filtering, packaging, and storing. He then introduced the oil richest in omega-3 (and therefore most sensitive to destruction by light, air, and heat), and subsequently developed a blend of several oils to obtain an optimum ratio of the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids essential to health.

Given optimum amounts of ALA, can the body then make all of the EPA and DHA it needs? The answer to this question becomes clear from research findings reported below. Udo's Oil Blend contains about 50% ALA. Fish oils contain about 30% EPA + DHA. The questions about conversion that need to be answered are:

  • Can the body convert ALA from Udo's Oil Blend into the omega-3 derivatives EPA + DHA contained in fish oils?
  • If so, how much conversion takes place?
  • Is conversion sufficient for health needs?


Research Hot off the Press

All three of these questions were answered in October 2002, by two studies published in the British Journal of Nutrition (BJN) which measured the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the short chain omega-3 essential fatty acid, into the long chain omega-3 derivatives EPA, DPA, and DHA. The first study1, carried out with six women, showed that these women converted an average of 36% of the ALA they were given into long chain omega-3 derivatives (21% EPA, 6%DPA, 9%DHA).

The second study2, done with six men, showed that the men converted an average of 16% of the ALA they received into long-chain omega-3 derivatives (8%EPA, 8%DPA). In this study, the men produced no DHA. However, another study showed that men convert ALA to DHA as well3.

Udo's Comment: Women must be able to convert enough ALA to long chain omega-3 to feed two brains, theirs and that of the child growing within them. Men have only one brain to feed, and therefore require less conversion to DHA than women do.

Estrogen Effect

In the study of conversion, 3 women using birth control pills (estrogen) converted more efficiently than did 3 women not taking 'the pill' who relied only on the estrogen produced by their body. The researchers suggest that estrogen may speed conversion.1 If the researchers are right, increased estrogen intake will help women after menopause, as well as men throughout their life (because men produce only small amounts of estrogen compared to women), to improve the efficiency of ALA conversion.

An easy, natural, and convenient way to do this is to use Wholesome Fast Food Blend, which is the richest source of beneficial plant estrogens called lignans. Lignans decrease high estrogen in women before menopause, and increase estrogen in women after the 'change of life'. Besides their mild estrogen benefits, lignans have anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-lupus, and anti-cholesterol benefits. They are therefore highly beneficial to health. Wholesome Fast Food Blend is the richest source of these lignans.

Conversion enhancement by estrogen has biological importance. It optimizes the conversion of ALA into the long chain omega-3 fatty acid, DHA, in women up during their childbearing years. Efficient conversion is needed, both during pregnancy and while breast-feeding, to build the child's nerves, brain, and vision (retina).

Rate of Conversion

How much conversion to long chain omega-3 derivatives (EPA + DHA) can a woman accomplish from the ALA in Udo's Choice Oil Blend? A 100-pound woman taking the recommended 2 tablespoons of Udo's Oil per day (1 tablespoon/50 pounds of body weight per day) will get about 14grams (14,000mg) of ALA. At the 36% conversion rate found in the study with young women, 14,000mg of ALA produces a total of 5,040mg of long chain omega-3 (2,940mg of EPA, 840mg of DPA, and 1,260mg of DHA). 36% conversion of the oil blend produces the equivalent of about 17 large (1,000mg) capsules of fish oil (each containing 300mg of EPA + DHA), which is close to twice as much as the highest recommended therapeutic dose of fish oil.

Using rate of conversion measured in the study with men, how much ALA is converted? A 150-pound man converting 16% of the recommended 3 tablespoons/day (again, 1 tablespoon/50 pounds of body weight/day of Udo's Choice Oil Blend) ends up with 3,360mg of long chain omega-3 (EPA + DPA), the equivalent of 11 large capsules of fish oil. This again is more than the highest recommended therapeutic dose of fish oil. The fact that no DHA was produced in the study with men prompted the researchers to speculate that men may need to eat fish or take fish oil supplements, but other studies find that men do make DHA.

Practical Conversion Confirmation
  The conversion numbers given above confirm what health practitioners see in their practice. Patients readily switch from fish oils to Udo's Oil Blend because they prefer its taste. Used at the optimum dose of one tablespoon/50 pounds of body weight/day, practitioners tell us that the oil blend gives the same kinds but also a wider range of benefits than fish oils. These benefits include lower cardiovascular risk, smoother skin, higher energy levels, stamina, performance and recovery, better insulin sensitivity, lowered cancer risk, lowered inflammation, greater heat production, and improved mood, learning, IQ and calmness, and better ability to handle stress.
Conversion Safety and Control
  When the body has as much DHA as it needs, feedback inhibition stops further conversion. Without this inhibition, toxicity could result from excess DHA production. Let me give an example. An analysis of fish oil studies showed that too much fish oil increases inflammation due to the extreme sensitivity of DHA to damage caused by oxidative stress4. Giving omega-3 in the more stable form of ALA is safer because it gives the body better metabolic control and prevents DHA overdosing. Some prominent Canadian health researchers have stated for more than 10 years that they prefer the basic omega-3 ALA to fish oils because of this better metabolic control that ALA affords the body.
Fish Oil Contamination

There is another, very serious, problem with fish oils. Many fish oils, especially those derived from fish livers, are contaminated with mercury, PCBs, organo-chlorine pesticides, and dioxins. These toxins can be largely removed by processing, but the processing results in fish oil molecules being damaged and becoming toxic.

According to a test carried out in by Central Science Labs in the UK (www.csl.gov.uk ) Udo's Oil Blend is cleaner than even the cleanest of 15 commercial fish oils tested by that laboratory.5 This is because Udo's Oil Blend is pressed from organically grown (pesticide-free and mercury-free) oil seeds. It is also free of any contaminants that might leach from plastic packaging, because the oil is always packaged in glass.
Udo's Oil Blend Compared to Cooking Oils

Since we are making oil comparisons, let's take a minute to compare Udo's Oil Blend, which is made with health in mind, to cooking oils that are made with shelf life in mind. All oils-from vegetable and fish-are delicate. Light, oxygen (air), and heat easily destroy the delicate oil molecules. To make cooking oils, these delicate oils, which should be treated with care, are subjected to destructive commercial processing methods using harsh, damaging chemicals. The purpose of the destructive processing is to increase the shelf stability of oils. The damaging chemicals used in the creation of 'cooking oils' include:

    • Sodium hydroxide (to degum),
    • Phosphoric acid (to refine {R}),
    • Bleaching clays (to bleach {B}).
Treatment with these chemicals creates malodorous rancidity. To blow off the bad odor, one further process must be used. That process is:
    • Steam or molecular distillation (to de-odorize {D}).

The finished product is called an RBD (Refined, Bleached, De-odorized) oil6. All commercial 'cooking oils' except extra virgin olive oil are RBD oils. Similar destructive processing is used to 'clean up' fish oils.

Caution: If health is the goal, oils should never be overheated during processing or cooking! Far too much destruction and toxicity results when oils are overheated. Increased incidence of cancer, cardiovascular problems, and inflammation are associated with overheated foods, including oils.

Toxic Molecules

RBD oils contain 0.5 to 1.0% damaged, highly toxic molecules. A single tablespoon of RBD cooking oil made by the above processes can deliver as many as one million toxic molecules to each of the body's 60 trillion cells-a much higher toxic load than our cells can handle. The use of omega-6 RBD oils like corn and safflower oil has been associated with increased cancer, and overheated oils also correlate with cardiovascular disease and inflammation.

Even worse processing damage can occur in fish oils, because EPA + DHA are 5 times more sensitive to destruction by light, oxygen, and heat than seed oils' ALA. And ALA is about 5 times more sensitive to these destructive factors than is the omega-6 essential fatty acid linoleic acid (LA).

For better health, avoid destructively processed (RBD) cooking oils and fish oils. Instead, eat fresh fatty fish from clean waters, and use good oils 'made with health in mind' in foods. These good oils come from organically grown seeds that are pressed, filtered, filled, packaged, and stored under protection from the destructive influences of light, oxygen (air), and heat. Made in this protected and careful way by Flora, the manufacturer, the molecules in Udo's Oil Blend remain in their natural state.

Flora does not degum, refine, bleach, or deodorize the oil blend, so the oil molecules remain naturally intact. Damage and toxicity are thereby avoided.

Research Conversion Confirmation

Every year, more research confirms that omega-3 conversion takes place effectively, provided that enough ALA is present in the diet and interfering factors are avoided. One of the main factors that interferes with omega-3 conversion is too much omega-6 in the diet, which is the case in the diets commonly eaten by people living in developed nations. Omega-6 slows down the conversion of omega-3.

While researchers still disagree on the exact rate of conversion (because the rate is affected by many nutritional and hormonal factors) and the optimum omega-3/omega-6 ratio, they agree that substantial conversion does take place. Here are some of their estimates (the first three estimates below were given to Udo by Sam Graci from discussions Sam said he had with Holub, Sears, and Schmidt):

  • Dr. Bruce Holub (U. of Guelph): 10-15%;
  • Dr. Barry Sears (The Zone Diet): up to 18%;
  • Dr. Michael Schmidt (Smart Fats): 10%;
  • Dr. EA Emken et al3 (research): 17%;
  • Dr. GC Burdge et al1,2 (research): 16%-men; 36%-women;
  • Dr. SM Innis7 (research): infants convert;
  • Dr. JT Brenna8 (research): all ages convert;
  • VP Carnielli et al9; C Billeaud et al10 'prematures' convert;

A few writers still claim that conversion is less than 5%, but more and more studies report much higher rates of conversion.

The fact of conversion is just common sense. The brains, eyes, and nervous systems of all animals, from insects up are rich in long chain omega-3s. Many of these animals are vegetarian, including rabbits, horses, and gorillas. They must be converting the basic omega-3 in their own body, because their foods supply provides only ALA, the basic omega-3. The long-chain omega-3 are important, so nature equipped creatures to make what they need, and to turn up production if long-chain omega-3 are not present in the diet.

Optimum omega-3/omega-6 Ratio and Optimum Conversion

Low conversion results from too little ALA intake, a whopping high (interfering) omega-6 intake, lack of the vitamins (B3, B6, C) and minerals (zinc, magnesium) necessary for conversion, other nutritional factors, and toxic influences. There is evidence that high carbohydrate diets slow down conversion, and diets higher in proteins enhance conversion. The ratio of twice more omega-3 than omega-6 found in Udo's Choice Oil blend ensures effective omega-3 conversion. Too high a ratio of omega-3 to omega-6, such as 3.5 or 4 to 1 found in flax and flax oil, can lead to omega-6 deficiency, with symptoms of deterioration that can harm all cells, tissues, glands, and organs.

Too low a ratio, such as 1 to 10 (the average found in Western diets) can lead to symptoms of omega-3 deficiency. Omega-3 deficiency increases the risk of increasing cardiovascular, immune, autoimmune, diabetic, and inflammatory disease, and leads to sub-optimal intelligence, concentration, mood, and performance. In the two conversion studies published in the BNJ, the diet contained only 1/7th as much omega-3 as omega-6. A better ratio would consist of more omega-3 and less omega-6. Udo's Choice Oil Blend contains an optimum ratio of 2 times more omega-3 than omega-6. Why is this important?

The higher the omega-6 intake, the slower is omega-3 conversion3. The more omega-3 and the less omega-6, the faster the conversion of ALA to long chain omega-3 (EPA + DHA) will be. But conversion takes place only as long as the body needs more EPA + DHA, and until optimum content has been achieved.

Genetic Variation

There is genetic variation in any population. Different people have different forms of the same gene. That's why some people have blue eyes, and others have brown or green eyes. Genes also govern the conversion of essential fats to their long chain derivatives. Some people convert more slowly; others convert more rapidly. However, adequate conversion is required for health and for life, and any creature completely unable to convert dies, because DHA and EPA have absolutely necessary vital functions in the body.

With inadequate conversion, a baby would die soon after it was cut off from the mother's intra-uterine or breast supply of DHA. Adults would expire from lack of fish in their diet. In the real world, this is not the case. Many inland populations, especially those roaming the flatlands, did not eat fish or seaweed. They survived because their body was genetically equipped to do the conversion of ALA from greens, seeds, and nuts into the EPA required for making health-protecting eicosanoid hormones and the DHA required for the brain, retina, and sperm.

For thousands of years, people got along without rancid, over-processed encapsulated fish oils. They are not a necessity for health. Today, people can still get along without these damaged, fishy 'fish oil pills'. Eating clean, wild catch fish two to five times a week provides the health benefits that are attributable to long chain omega-3 fats, including lowered risk of cardio, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and even osteoporosis.

I hope this helps to clear up the conversion confusion. Eat clean, organically grown foods, optimize your intake Udo's Oil Blend and the other 13 components of health-greens, minerals, vitamins, proteins, enzymes, probiotics, fiber, antioxidants, phytonutrients, fuel, water, air, and light. Enjoy your life. Be grateful for everything God, nature, and nurture gives you, and you're good to go.

APPENDIX I: Abbreviations, & basic facts about 'essential' fats

EFAs = Essential Fatty Acids are substances from fats that must be provided by foods because the body cannot make them, and yet must have them for health. EFAs exist in two families: omega-3 (omega-3) and omega-6 (omega-6). From these two, the body can make several derivatives, as well as eicosanoid 'hormones', and other active substances. Omega-3s never turn into omega-6s in our body, and omega-6s cannot turn into omega-3s. Omega-3 and omega-6 EFAs do, however, have some overlapping functions.

As a result of overlap in functions, omega-6 can cover some symptoms of omega-3 deficiency. But, as a quirk of nature, omega-3 cannot cover most symptoms of omega-6 deficiency. This leads to a situation where, although omega-3 deficiency is far more widespread, omega-6 deficiency symptoms are easier to identify. For many years, this nature's quirk led to the now known to be mistaken notion that omega-6 are more important than omega-3 (or that omega-3 are not essential at all). As a result, instead of focusing on bringing the missing omega-3 EFA back into the diet, much work has been done with oils rich in the omega-6 derivative GLA. (Essential) Omega-3 = omega-3 fatty acids include:

    • ALA (alpha-linolenic acid; abundant in flax, and present in small quantities in hemp, walnut, soybean, and canola); given enough ALA to start with, the body converts ALA into SDA, EPA, and DHA in various tissues, according to need; conversion varies, depending on several factors, and ranges from less than 5% to 36% per day of the amount of ALA consumed;
    • SDA (stearidonic acid; present in a few exotic seeds);
    • EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; parent of Series 1 eicosanoid hormones; found in fish oils);
    • DPA (docosapentaenoic acid);
    • DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; the major brain omega-3; also found in eyeball (retina), red-brown algae, and fish oils).

ALA = Alpha-Linolenic Acid is the omega 3 (omega-3) EFA. It is sometimes shortened to LNA. ALA is very fragile to destruction by light, oxygen (air), and heat, and must therefore be protected from these influences. If this is not done, ALA molecules change from natural and beneficial to unnatural and toxic. ALA is destroyed about 5 times faster than LA, the omega-6 EFA. ALA is deficient in the diets of most people in affluent societies. Due to processing damage, shelf life considerations, and changes in food choices, average intake of omega-3 has decreased to less than 20% of what was present in common diets 150 years ago.

Even back then, omega-3 intake was less than optimal because few foods are rich in omega-3. About 95-99% of the population gets less omega-3 than required for good health (making omega-3 the essential nutrient most often lacking in people's foods) and omega-3 is therefore the most therapeutic of all of the essential nutrients (20 minerals, 14 vitamins, 8-11 amino acids, 2 fatty acids). Omega-3s improve more than twice as many health problems as do omega-6. Omega-3s are more effective for:

    • Raising energy levels, stamina, and performance;
    • Improving concentration, learning, calmness, behavior, and IQ;
    • Lowering cardiovascular risk factors;
    • Inhibiting cancer growth and metastasis;
    • Increasing insulin sensitivity;
    • Speeding the healing of wounds due to accidental injury, physical exertion, and surgery;
    • Decreasing inflammation and joint pain;
    • Dampening the symptoms of auto-immune diseases;
    • Improving bone mineral metabolism;
    • Improving weight management; and
    • Increasing fat burning, decreasing fat production, and increasing fat burn-off as heat (thermogenesis).
However, too much omega-3 (e.g. the use of flax and flax oil as the only source of EFAs in the diet) can lead to omega-6 deficiency and thereby work against the health of cells, tissues, glands, and organs. Thus the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 in the diet is a highly important consideration. (Essential) Omega-6 = omega-6 fatty acids include:
    1. LA (linoleic acid; abundant in safflower, sunflower, and corn; present in medium quantities in soybean, sesame, pumpkin seed, and almond; present in small quantities in canola, peanut, and olive); given enough LA to start with, the body converts LA into GLA, DGLA, and AA in various tissues, according to need;
    2. GLA (gamma-linolenic acid; present in evening primrose oil); GLA can partially cover omega-3 deficiency; a main reason for its benefits comes from being used in an omega-3 deficient population; in people consuming an omega-3-rich, omega-6-balanced diet, GLA is not nearly as impressive as it is in treating omega-3 deficient people;
    3. DGLA (dihomogamma-linolenic acid; parent of Series 1 eicosanoid hormones);
    4. AA (Arachidonic acid; the major brain omega-6; parent of Series 2 eicosanoid hormones; found in meat, eggs, and dairy products).

LA = Linoleic Acid is the omega-6 (omega-6) EFA. LA is abundant in the diets of most people in affluent societies, its intake having doubled during the past 100 years due to increased use of corn and safflower oils. Diets too high in LA (and too low in omega-3) are associated with increased cancer. Damaged omega-6 molecules due to processing, removal of antioxidants and phytosterols, and concomitant lack of omega-3 are likely responsible for this problem. LA is essential to life and to health, and must be present in the diet.

LA is sensitive to destruction by light, oxygen (air), and heat (but 5 times less sensitive than omega-3), and should be protected from these destructive influences. If this is not done, LA molecules can change from natural and beneficial, to unnatural and toxic. People on low fat or no fat diets are likely to get insufficient omega-3 and omega-6. Omega-3: omega-6 Ratio: Both omega-3 and omega-6 are essential to health and must come from the diet because the body cannot make them.

However, too much omega-3 can crowd out the omega-6 (as can happen with flax and flax oil used exclusively as the source of EFAs in the diet), and lead to omega-6 deficiency. Too much omega-6 can crowd out omega-3 (as is the case in 'normal' Western diets), and lead to omega-3 deficiency. The ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 is important and must be carefully considered. I have seen the best results for health using an omega-3: omega-6 ratio of 2: 1. (Non-essential) N-9 = omega-9 = OA (oleic acid) The body can itself make this monounsaturated fatty acid, and OA is therefore not essential. Essential means that the body cannot make it, cannot live without it, and must therefore obtain it from an outside source, i.e. food or supplement.

APPENDIX II - References
  1British Journal of Nutrition 2002 Oct;88(4):411-20. Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapenta-enoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women. Burdge GC, Wootton SA. Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. g.c.burdge@soton.ac.uk
Estimated net fractional ALA inter-conversion was EPA 21%, DPA 6% and DHA 9%. (Udo's Comment: That is a superb conversion rate!) Approximately 22% of administered [13C]ALA was recovered as 13CO2 on breath over the first 24 h of the study. (Udo's Comment: That means that women burned 22% of the ALA for energy.) Comparison with previous studies suggests that women may possess a greater capacity for ALA conversion than men. (Udo's Comment: Does that mean that women are smarter than men? Smart men have always known that!) Such metabolic capacity may be important for meeting the demands of the fetus and neonate for DHA during pregnancy and lactation. (Udo's Comment: In the paper, the authors suggest that estrogen may increase conversion of ALA to long chain omega-3.) Differences in DHA status between women both in the non-pregnant state and in pregnancy may reflect variations in metabolic capacity for DHA synthesis. (Udo's Comment: Rate of conversion is also affected by omega-3/omega-6 ratio, and by many nutritional and hormonal factors.) 2British Journal of Nutrition 2002 Oct;88(4):355-63 Eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids are the principal products of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in young men*. Burdge GC, Jones AE, Wootton SA. Institute of Human Nutrition, Level C, West Wing, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK. gcb@soton.ac.uk
Approximately 33% of administered [13C]ALA was recovered as 13CO2 on breath over the first 24 h. (Udo's Comment: That means that the men burned more (33%) ALA for energy than the women (22%).) The time scale of conversion of [13C]ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) suggested that the liver was the principal site of ALA desaturation and elongation, although there was some indication of EPA and DPA synthesis by enterocytes. There was no apparent 13C enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma PC, TAG or non-esterified fatty acids at any time point measured up to 21 d. This pattern of 13C omega-3 fatty acid labelling suggests inhibition or restriction of DHA synthesis downstream of DPA. (Udo's Comment: Other researchers find that conversion to DHA does take place in humans. The reason for inhibition in this study was not identified.) Since the capacity of adult males to convert ALA to DHA was either very low or absent, uptake of pre-formed DHA from the diet may be critical for maintaining adequate membrane DHA concentrations in these individuals. (Udo's Comment: That conclusion is doubtful. Other studies show DHA production from ALA in men. Also, many other factors affect conversion rate. For instance, if the brain has enough DHA, conversion is unnecessary and is shut down by feedback, until DHA is used up and more DHA needs to be made to replenish brain DHA supply.) 3Emken EA et al Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labelled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1213, 277-88. 4Arnesen H omega-3 fatty acids and revascularization procedures. Lipids. 2001;36 Suppl:S103-6. Review.

5Food Safety Authority of Ireland. Measurement of persistent organic pollutants in 15 commercial fish oils. 2002. Central Science Labs in the UK carried out the tests for PCBs, PAHs, and dioxins. The same laboratory carried out the same test on Udo's Choice Oil Blend.

6Hui YH (ed) Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Fifth Edition. Wiley Interscience, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. 1996.

7Innis SM, Sprecher H, Hachey D, Edmond J, Anderson RE. Neonatal polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. Lipids. 1999 Feb;34(2):139-49. Review.

8Brenna JT. Efficiency of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to long chain omega-3 fatty acids in man. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2002 Mar;5(2):127-32.

9Billeaud C, Bougle D, Sarda P, Combe N, Mazette S, Babin F, Entressangles B, Descomps B, Nouvelot A, Mendy F. Effects of preterm infant formula supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid with a linoleate/alpha-linolenate ratio of 6: a multicentric study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997 Aug;51(8):520-6.

10Carnielli VP, Wattimena DJ, Luijendijk IH, Boerlage A, Degenhart HJ, Sauer PJ. The very low birth weight premature infant is capable of synthesizing arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids from linoleic and linolenic acids. Pediatr Res. 1996 Jul;40(1):169-74.



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